When Your Order Arrives:
KEEP THE PACKING LIST!! - The packing list is your proof of purchase and is needed for your guarantee. It will contain HANDWRITTEN Information we need that only you will have. Keep this document in a safe location for the year your plants are under warranty.
INSPECT YOUR ORDER - Make sure all the items listed on the shipping label, located on the outside of the package, are enclosed. Then check all the plants; if you discover some broken branches or roots simply prune them off. This will not hurt your plants.
REMEMBER YOUR PLANTS ARE LIKELY DORMANT AND NOT DEAD - The majority of the plants we send are in a dormant state in which they dry up and look dead. Many of the plants are also bare root meaning there will not be dirt surrounding the roots, nor will they be in pots.
Dormancy is the state that a plant/tree/shrub goes into during the winter in cold climates and is the safest way to transport live plants. We keep our bare root items in climate-controlled coolers to keep them in this dormant state until they are packaged for shipping. Some plants may look droopy on arrival. Give them a chance. Plant as directed and water regularly and the plants will almost certainly revive.
Is My Woody Plant or Tree Alive?
If in doubt, do a SCRATCH TEST. Scratch away a small amount of the bark, approximately one inch up from the base of the plant. If the plant tissue underneath is white or green - it is alive; if it is brown or black - it is dead. Follow the guarantee procedure on the front cover to receive a replacement.
PLANT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE - For best results, plant right away, however before you do thaw them out gradually in the packing they arrived in if the plants arrive frozen. Soak the roots of the bare root woody plants in cool water overnight to help them break dormancy. Non-woody bare root plants should NOT be soaked. When immediate planting is not possible, store bulbs and perennials in a cool, dry, dark place such as an unheated garage or basement. Perennials should have their roots lightly moistened. Heel in trees and shrubs (see below). These measures are all temporary and proper planting should be done as soon as possible.
WATER, MULCH AND CULTIVATE - Proper care of your new plants is very important. New plants can be very tender and require additional care until they are established. View the section, "After You Plant" on page 8 for more specific details and make sure your plants receive adequate water.
BE PATIENT AND ENJOY! - Your gardening adventure is just beginning. Allow your plants 6 weeks to become acclimated to their surroundings and begin to thrive before implementing your warranty. Take proper care and sit back and enjoy your new plants!
Preparing the Ground for Planting
The soil where you will be planting should be loose and of good quality. Dig the hole and work in some Peat Moss, manure, humus, or leaf-mold with the existing soil. This will add organic matter. If your soil contains high amounts of sand or clay, you will want to add some good black topsoil in addition to the organic matter. A good rule of thumb is 1/3 original soil, 1/3 organic matter and 1/3 topsoil, if the original soil is not of good quality.
To ensure adequate room make the hole 2 times the width and depth of the root system you are working with. Potted plants should have 6 to 8" of space around them. When holes are dug in sod for trees or shrubs, work up 2 or 3' around the plant and keep this cultivated or mulched for good plant growth. The 7-8" of soil at the bottom of the hole should be loose so the roots have plenty of good soft soil to take hold in. Planting depth should be at the same level as they were grown in the nursery. Look for the old soil line on the plant. You would want the hole to be deep enough to keep the original soil line. If you are not able to see the soil line, or you are dealing with non-woody plants, the top of the root system should be just below the soil surface (this information is general; some plants may require more specific depths). DO NOT FERTILIZE NEWLY SET MATERIAL.
Heeling In Trees and Shrubs
If you cannot plant nursery stock soon after it is received, it is best to "heel" it in someplace where it will have protection from the sun and wind. This temporary planting will help retard development. Remove all packing material and grass that might harbor mice or insects. Spread out the roots as you would in a permanent planting situation and fill in with pulverized earth and set firmly. Be sure to keep the earth moist until you are ready to plant permanently.
Is My Woody Plant or Tree Alive?
If in doubt, do a scratch test. Scratch away a small amount of the bark, approximately one inch up from the base of the plant. If the plant tissue underneath is white or green - it is alive; if it isbrown or black - it is dead. Follow the guarantee procedure on the front cover to receive a replacement.
Spring-Summer and Fall Planting
SPRING SHIPPING begins in March to the warmest climates and progresses North as the weather warms. Until April we only ship dormant plants, then we begin shipping potted items and tender perennials as the weather warms up.
The plants we ship, other than the potted items, throughout the spring and summer are sent dormant. They can be planted even if your area is still at risk for frost. Potted items should NOT be planted until there is no longer a risk for frost.
IF THE GROUND IS STILL FROZEN when your plants arrive, open the package and place them in a cool (preferably dark) location, such as an unheated garage or basement. Keep the rootstock moist, but not wet by misting them with a spray bottle. This will protect them from the elements, but will keep them cool enough to remain dormant until you get the chance to plant.
IF YOU THINK IT IS TOO HOT when your plants arrive, plant them anyway. Some people think if their order arrives late in the spring or into the summer when the temperatures are already hot that it is too late to plant. This is incorrect. When dealing with bare root, dormant plants they can be planted in the heat of the summer. It is important to simply provide enough water to the newly set material. Do not allow newly set plants and trees to dry out after planting. Likewise, spring-blooming bulbs can be planted as usual, even if it's hot outside.
DO NOT FERTILIZE any bare root items until the second year, which is when the feeding roots will be established. In addition, bare root items are too sensitive to be fertilized the first year. Fertilizing too soon could actually cause harm to the root system and possibly kill the plant. If you want to use something the first year, root stimulator could be used.
FALL HARVEST SHIPPING begins in late November and goes through the entire winter for some zones. The items we ship in the fall are dormant and can be planted until the ground is frozen. Unless you cannot physically dig a hole in the ground, the item can be planted. ALL plant material shipped in the fall can be planted as long as you can dig the hole no matter how cold it is outside.
They will not, however, come out of dormancy within 6 weeks as they would if planted in the spring or summer. Instead, wait until your other plants begin to leaf the next spring. If at that time, the items you planted in the fall do not leaf out, they may not have survived. In this event, send your shipping label for a replacement, (see the guarantee on front cover).
WINTER STORAGE - If you do not wish to plant items which arrive late in the season, you may store them for the winter. Store NURSERY STOCK - The best place to store your nursery stock for the winter is outside in the ground, simply heel them all into one hole in an area where they will receive sun, rain, snow, etc... , note that if you feel your soil will be frozen solid before receiving your plants you can dig a hole twice the size needed, place the soil in a bucket and store it in a heated area until the plants arrive. You can then use this thawed soil to heel in your plants for the winter. If your soil is already frozen solid and you cannot physically dig a hole, then you can use a well-drained container with soil or sawdust (DO NOT use Potting Soil Intended For Indoor Plants!). Place them in an area where they will receive sun, snow, rain etc... Transplant as soon as the ground is workable in early spring before they leaf out.
Planting Bareroot Trees and Shrubs
After preparing the planting site as instructed in the section "Preparing the Ground for Planting", on page 2, remove whatever packing material was used from around the plant. Prune any broken or damaged roots. Spread the root system, of the tree or shrub, naturally and work soil over and around the roots. Set trees one or two inches deeper than they stood in the nursery and set shrubs at about the same depth they stood in the nursery or slightly deeper. Look for the dark soil ring around the trunk. Keep putting in the good dirt mixture, slightly compacting it firmly around the roots, until the hole is nearly full. Fill the hole with water and once the water has soaked into the ground, complete filling the hole with loose dirt leaving a saucer-like depression to retain water. It is best to cover the area with 2" of mulch. DO NOT FERTILIZE until the second year when feeding roots have been established. Fertilizing before can damage tender young roots.
Water two or three times per week throughout the first year, except in the winter when watering should only be done when the ground is thawed. (This is a guideline, depending on the weather in your area; you may need to water more or less often).
Most shrubs should be thinned out at the top to remove old wood. Cut tops back about 1/3 to 1/2.
TREE HYDRANGEA AND TREE ROSE OF SHARON
Strong growing plants such as Hydrangea (Hydrangea P.G.) and Rose of Sharon (Hibiscus Syriacus) may be grown in tree form. Generally, it is best to remove all canes except for the strongest. Then place a stake beside the plant and securely tie the branch to the stake. Keep all side branches cut off and continue to tie the trunk to the stake as it grows. When the trunk has reached the desired height allow several lateral branches to develop. Prune these as necessary to keep the tree from becoming top heavy. The stake may be removed after the trunk is strong enough to support the top. Hydrangea - part shade, grows up to 12' tall. Rose of Sharon - sun to part shade, grows to 15' tall.
In the Orient, Tree Peonies are called "King of the Flowers." Unlike ordinary Peonies they do not die back to the ground each year but form a woody deciduous shrub that will grow 4-5' tall. Tree Peonies should be planted with the graft at the ground surface. The graft is at the top of the fleshy root. Plant in a protected area, in full sun to partial shade, and in good garden soil. Although Tree Peonies prefer a well-drained location, they should be watered well all season. They should be mulched well the first winter after planting.
AZALEAS, HOLLY, RHODODENDRONS
These are all plants that grow best in acidic soil (pH factor 4.2 to 5.2). This can be obtained by adding partially-decayed oak leaves and acid peat or Ferrous Sulfate. Plant in a moist, well-drained, light soil with a high proportion of humus. These plants are shallow-rooted and should never be cultivated. Plant them high and maintain at least a 3" mulch around them.
|TREES, SHRUBS, and HEDGES|
|Almond, Pink Flowering||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Ash, Green||Sun/Pt Shade||up to 70'|
|Ash, Mountain||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Ash, European Mountain||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Azalea||Pt Sun/Pt Shade|
|Barberry, Redleaf||Sun/Pt Shade||3-5'||4-6' individual, 18" for hedge|
|Beauty Berry||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Ben Franklin Tree||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Birch||Sun/Pt Shade||40-70'||Clumps of 3, 35' apart|
|Bittersweet, Evergreen||Sun/Pt Shade||3-4'||12" for hedge|
|Blue Mist Shrub||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Boxwood, Korean||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Burning Bush, Dwarf||Sun to Shade|
|Cherry, Royal Japanese||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Cherry, Snow Fountain||Sun|
|Cherry Bush, Hansen's||Sun||5'||6' for hedge|
|Coralberry, Indian Currant||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Crab, 3 N 1 Flowering||Sun|
|Cypress, Gold Mop False||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Dogwood, Dwarf||Pt to Full Shade|
|Dogwood, Pink||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Dogwood, Red Twig||Sun|
|Elm, Princeton American||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Elm, Siberian||Sun/Pt Shade||45'||3-6' for hedge|
|Fir, Douglas||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Firethorn||Sun/Pt Shade||10'||3-4' for hedge|
|Fringetree, White||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Golden Chain Tree||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Hemlock, Canadian||Sun/Pt Shade||20-35' hedge
|Hickory, Mammoth||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Holly||Sun/Pt Shade||6-8'||2-4' for hedge|
|Juniper, Blue Rug||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Kerria, Double Golden||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Lilac, Japanese Tree||Sun|
|Lilac, Josee||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Lilac, Old Fashioned||Sun|
|Lilac, Persian||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Lily of the Valley Tree||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Maple, Japanese Crimson Queen||Sun|
|Maple, Scarlet Red||Sun|
|Mock Orange||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Mulberry, Russian||Sun/Pt Shade||45'||10' for hedge|
|Olive, Autumn||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Paw Paw Tree||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Pine, Austrian||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Pine, Scotch||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Pine, White||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Plum Hedge, Purple Leaf||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Poplar, Screen Hybrid||Sun|
|Poplar, Shade Hybrid||Sun|
|Privet Hedge||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Pussy Willow, Weeping||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Red Bud Tree||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Robin Hood Rose||Sun|
|Rose of Sharon, Hedge||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Silk Tree, Hardy||Sun|
|Snowball Bush||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Spirea, Bridal White||Sun||6'||2' for hedge;
|Spruce, Blue||Sun||50'||10' for hedge
|Spruce, Norway||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Sweet Shrub, Spicy||Part Shade|
|Thuja, Green Giant||Sun|
|Walking Stick||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Willow, Pussy||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Wisteria Tree||Pt Shade/Pt Sun|
Evergreens and Hedges
After preparing the planting site as instructed in the section "Preparing the Ground for Planting", pg. 2, trim off any injured roots. Set the evergreen about 1" deeper than they had been planted at the nursery. Evergreens are not hard to grow but there are some factors to be considered to help prevent evergreen failure.
WATER - During the first year, evergreens should never be allowed to dry out. Water them 2-3 times per week with long, slow soakings that thoroughly saturate the soil around the roots.
SOIL CONDITIONS - Most soil around the house comes from basement diggings, which will not support plant life. Be sure to work up the soil with organic matter and use a well-balanced fertilizer, after the first year.
SUN - Most evergreens are grown in open fields for their first few years. When they are transplanted near a house where they are in shade for several hours each day, the resulting change may be harmful. It may be necessary to use a good balanced fertilizer (after the first year) to supplement the changed environment.
PETS - Perhaps the most common cause of evergreen failure is injury caused by pets. Damage from pets can kill evergreens in a matter of days.
NARROW-LEAVED EVERGREENS - These may be kept thick and shapely and their growth restricted to suit your purpose by pinching back a part of the tender, new growth. Cut back evergreen hedges whenever the growth is becoming irregular and out of shape.
BROAD-LEAVED EVERGREENS - Pruning tips of branches before new growth starts will help to keep shrubbery thick. If necessary, head back longer growth. Removal of fading flower clusters will prevent seeds from forming on Laurels, Rhododendrons and Andromedas. This is usually all the pruning that's necessary.
For single row, dig a trench 18" to 2' deep or more, depending on size of plants. For larger shrubs, such as the Russian Olive, it is often more practical to dig individual holes than to set by the trench method. Allow plenty of room between each plant for future development. Space smaller (mature size) plants 10" to 12" apart, larger plants 2' to 3'. The first pruning is highly important. Be sure to taper sides toward top leaving widest part at bottom. Thus, adequate light is assured on lower branches to make good uniform foliage possible.
After You Plant Tips
CULTIVATE - Control weeds with frequent, shallow cultivation. This will produce dust mulch that conserves the much-needed moisture in the soil. It also eliminates weeds that compete for moisture.
MULCH - A mulch of peat, grass clippings, manure with straw, marsh hay, or compost may be used instead of a dust mulch for ornamental trees, shrubs and evergreens. Wood chips, of some sort, are usually favorable for perennial plantings as they are more attractive. Mulch will help keep the weeds down and the moisture in, which is greatly needed with new plantings.
WATER - Give plants all the water the soil can absorb at one time. Evergreens, especially, need to be given ample water in late fall before freezing begins. It is important to give plenty of water during dry spells. This will be necessary the first several years for trees. Watering perennials the first year is especially important as well. Do not allow the ground to dry out, but do not let it get soggy unless the plant can tolerate being placed in water (see the perennial chart starting on page 17). Keeping the plants well watered will aid in their root development and help the plant get established before winter. After the first yearand the plants are well established, many perennials can even tolerate dry periods. Natures rainfall should be enough water unless there are prolonged dry spells.
FERTILIZE - Trees should be fertilized regularly after the first year. Use one-quarter of a pound of commercial nitrate fertilizer per year of growth. This can be broadcast under the spread of the branches in the spring. Perennials can also be fertilized after they are established, typically the second year. Fertilizing too soon can damage tender root systems. Be patient and wait to fertilize.
PRUNE - The principal purpose of pruning trees and shrubs is to improve the structure. Try to obtain a uniform spacing of the main stems and branches. Thin out the weak growth and eliminate weak crotches. Raise the head of the tree gradually by removing lowest branches; start by carefully pruning the lower branches, about 2 years after you plant. The lower branches should be at least 7 feet above the ground so that you can walk under them. You can keep shrubs shapely and restricted; shrubs should be pruned by removing only the old wood to the ground.
Perennials may be pruned to keep them looking their best. Use sharp shears and cut at a 45º angle. Remove dead, damaged, and weak shoots generally during the active growing season, typically spring or after blooming. Plants will be fuller and bloom more profusely. Ground covers will be thicker and flower more when trimmed back about halfway. Don't be afraid to prune! Your plants will love you!
Plant fruit trees where they will have plenty of sunshine and air. Pruning at planting time consists only of cutting back a few of the branches to balance the roots and top of trees. Light, annual, spring pruning is preferable to heavy cutting every few years. Remove crossed or injured limbs and any branches that rub against each other leaving desired limbs. Try not to cut sharp angle crotches where branches join the trunk, as these might split with large amounts of fruit as the tree matures. Pruning should open up trees so sunlight can color the fruit and give free circulation of air. Rabbits and other small animals can cause substantial damage to young fruit trees during the winter months. Until the 4th year, the lower 18-24" of the trunk should have a protective barrier installed for the winter.
Regular spraying stops insects before they can damage your crop. Apply dormant oil before buds begin to swell. Spray trees with liquid fruit tree spray after flower petals fall. Follow-up applications should be made at approximately 10 day intervals until the harvest nears.
To increase productivity, thinning the crop will be necessary. This will give you much higher quality and larger fruit. For apples and pears, remove one fruit per cluster. For peaches, nectarines, plums and apricots, leave only one fruit per 8-10" of limb space. Thin crop when tiny fruits become visible.
Plant standard apple and cherry trees 30'-40' apart; apricot, pears, plums and peaches about 20' apart following the instructions in the section "Preparing the Ground for Planting" on page 2. Plant dwarf apples, pears, plums, and apricots 10' apart.
Small Fruits, Berries, and Kiwi
For best results, all fruit plants should be planted in deep, well-drained soil. They should be placed in a location where they will receive full sun and have plenty of room to grow.
CURRANTS & GOOSEBERRIES
Do best in cool, moist, partially shaded locations. Set in spring or fall. In the spring, they should be planted before the buds begin to grow. Prune any damaged roots and cut tops back to 10". When planting, the lower branches should be just a little below the soil level to encourage them to develop into bush form. Space Gooseberries 4 to 6' apart; Currants 3 to 4' apart. Fertilize well when you plant, water as necessary and mulch.
These prefer moist, well-drained soil and require 2 plants for cross-pollination. The old wood should be pruned to thin out the plant and to prevent crowding.
RED AND BLACK RASPBERRIES AND BLACKBERRIES
Put roots in a bucket of water while you are preparing the holes for planting. Trim off any broken roots and cut the tops of the plant back to about 6". The hole should be dug large enough to allow you to spread the roots out like a fan; firmly pack the soil around the roots. Plant 3-5' apart in 6' rows. Red Raspberries should be planted 1-2" deeper than they were in the nursery (look for original soil line); Black Raspberries should be 1" deeper. Blackberries should be planted just about as deep as they were at the nursery. The soil should be rich in humus. They should all be planted so that there is free air movement during the growing season. This lowers the humidity and discourages fungus diseases. Never let the ground dry out. Cultivate early in the season and after the plants are established. Toward midsummer, begin mulching with materials such as grass clippings. This will help to keep the weeds down and conserve moisture. If the bushes are left un-pruned, the berries will become a mass of brambles. After fruiting each year, the old canes should be cut out and burnt. A few vigorous new canes should be left for the fruit to grow on the next year. These fruiting canes should be cut back to about 2 ½' in early spring in order to encourage fruiting laterals.
BOYSENBERRIES and DEWBERRIES
These can both be trained on either a 4' tall stake or a 2-3' wire trellis. Plant in light, fertile, well drained, moisture holding soil, with peat moss added in full sun. Boysenberries should be planted 8' apart. Dewberries are planted much the same as the Blackberries. This thorn-less, deciduous perennial fruiting vine, known also as a trailing blackberry, is tender and grown mainly in the South. Plant 4' apart in rows 6' apart, one month before last frost. When planting, clip canes to 6" stubs and place at the depth they grew in the nursery. DO NOT plant them where tomatoes, potatoes, or eggplants have grown previously. Young shoots, from the present year's growth, should be kept on the ground and fastened with wire brackets to keep them out of the way. The fruiting canes should be looped over the trellis and cut off after bearing. As the new canes develop, the second year, let them lie on the ground as the first year. After the old canes have born fruit, cut and burn them to protect plants from anthracnose. Also cut and burn any stubs, which do not sprout. From the new canes, 14-15 canes should then be selected for the next season's crop. The new canes should then be tied to the trellis. Mulch to keep in moisture and reduce weeds. If using straw or sawdust, add extra nitrogen. In colder areas they should be covered with hay. Well-rotted manure, or compost should be used as fertilizer in the spring by working it into the soil around each plant, but don't fertilize too heavily or you will have lush plant growth at the expense of fruit.
These do best in a cool, moist climate that does not have hot, dry winds. The soil should be moist, light textured and contain a high proportion of organic matter. The optimum acidity level is from pH 4.0 to 4.5. It is beneficial to mix soil with liberal amounts of peat moss and Ferrous Sulfate. Plant in spring or fall, using 2 varieties or more for good pollination. Each year 3-4" of sawdust or peat mulch should be applied. Blueberries have shallow root systems, so a shallow cultivation is required. Prune annually AFTER the 4th year, cutting back damaged wood to healthy strong growth.
These should be planted 6' apart in a broad and deep hole. The top should be cut back to 2 or 3 strong buds. They should be planted deep enough to keep the roots from drying out and the hole should be filled with a rich soil or compost. Place the dirt firmly around the roots and water well. They should be kept cultivated through the first season. Once the vines are established they should be mulched with straw, leaves or ground corncobs. A well-decomposed manure is the best fertilizer to use, but do not apply if the vines are making excessive growth because a moderate growth of canes, which mature early, is preferred.
Prune annually while dormant (before buds start to swell). The fruit clusters are formed from the buds on 1-year-old canes. Canes that have borne fruit will not bear again so prune those off leaving approximately four new canes on each plant. To prune properly, 80 to 90% of the wood must be removed.
PLANT JUST ABOVE SECOND BUD AND GROW on a sturdy trellis or fence giving grapes good air circulation to prevent rot and mildew.
Plant in fertile, well cultivated soil. Set the plant with the crown just at the surface of the soil. Be sure roots are spread out fan-shaped and hang down full length without crowding. For the garden, set them at 2 foot intervals. Mulch them with 3 or 4" of straw in the fall. The mulch can be left on the next season to retain moisture and keep down weeds.
Plant in rich, well limed garden soil in the spring or the fall. Plant rhubarb divisions 3 feet apart so crown is 1 to 3" below the surface of the soil. Give plenty of moisture, clean cultivation, and feed generously yearly. No stalks should be pulled until the second year and then harvested lightly. The third year and after, they may be pulled over a 6-week period from early spring until early summer. Plants may be dug, divided and moved in either the fall or the spring.
Shipped: 2 ¼" pot.
Light: full sun to partial shade, likes humidity
Plant: 8' apart in rows 10-16' apart
Fruit: late summer
Fruit Size: ¾" to 1 ½"
Time to Bear Fruit: 3-4 years
Mature Plant: Up to 10 gallons of fruit from 2 vines
This ornamental creeper will quickly cover arbors, fences or trellises. It can be trained to cover an area 8 feet high by 30 feet wide, creating an excellent screen. Must have both male and female for cross-pollination. Your male kiwi, which will supply sufficient pollen for 5-7 female plants, should be placed within 200-300' of any female kiwi you wish to bear fruit. Grows like a grape, harvest September-October, must have a dormant period. Insect and disease resistant.
CARING FOR YOUR KIWI - When first received, transplant into a larger pot. Keep it inside in a sunny location until plant is stronger, then transplant outside. You'll need to protect your kiwi from the frost in the spring when any new young growth is on the plant, because the crop for that season may be lost. If a late spring frost is in the forecast, cover the plant with burlap or an old sheet. Be sure to provide a support system soon after planting. Kiwi should receive an inch of water a week, either through rainfall or watering. Allowing the soil to dry out in the summer will damage the fruit crop and reduce winter hardiness. The first winter after planting your kiwi apply a very deep (4-6") layer of humus mulch after the soil has frozen.
PRUNING KIWI - You must prune in the summer to have the vines fruit. If left un-pruned it may take up to six years to flower. To prune, pinch back the canes as they grow from the two main lateral branches (Cordons). In the spring the canes grow quickly to 8" long. Prune these back to about 4". You may need to do this every few days or so. You can stop pruning around mid-summer.
Paw Paw's do best in deep, fertile soil that is moist, but well-drained and slightly acidic. Filtered sun is preferred the first year or two, but once established full sun is best. They grow 15-20' tall and wide, occasionally reaching 30-40'. Need 2 for pollinating. Usually fruits in 3 years. May need to hand pollinate. Fruit is ripe when soft and yields easily to a gentle squeeze. Highly nutritious. Fruit will keep for up to 3 weeks if refrigerated.
The Fig prefers moist, well drained soils. It is tolerant of a wide variety of soils ranging from mostly sand to some clay, normal to moist with a pH of 5.5 to 8. Plant in full sun. Fruit ripens in June on old wood and often again in August on current year's wood. If winter temperature is colder than –5 degrees, the top will die back but the root will survive. Can be container planted if needed in cold zones.
Prefer well drained soil. Will tolerate soils with sandy loam or some clay. pH 4.5 to 7.5. Full sun. 2-3 years to bear fruit. Tolerates dry, hot conditions.
Hardy to minus 40 degrees! Produces large crops of elongated blueberry-like fruits 1-2 years after planting. Blue Velvet reaches 3-4 feet, while Blue Moon grows 2-3 feet tall. By planting these two varieties you will enjoy fruit from May-July. Two varieties are required for pollination.
House and Container Plants
* Upon receipt, immediately remove your plants from the packaging. Transit can cause some stress on the plants. They could appear dry and/or wilted. Place them in a moderately sunny window and water them well; they should perk back up within a few days, but they should be given 6 weeks to come completely out of the shipping shock.
* Cleaning your plants, once every month or two, will remove dust that prevents them from breathing properly. Use a damp cloth, or gentle mist. Most other methods will only block up the pores on the leaf surface
* Fertilizing must be done with care. Although you may be tempted to fertilize your new plants - DON'T. The plants should be established prior to beginning a feeding program. Never apply dry fertilizer unless the soil is moist.
* Watering kills plants more than anything else, be it under watering or over watering. Do not use cold water. They should be watered from the top to prevent buildup of salts at the surface. Do not use water that has passed through a water softener.
* Insects can cause a great deal of harm to your plants. We have been very careful to send you healthy plants that are free of insects. The best thing is to keep them this way. If plants have aphids or mites, a gentle wash will usually remove them from the plant. If the problem persists, use a general-purpose insecticide (cautiously and sparingly).
Aloe, Dwarf This dwarf grows only 18-20” tall and is ideal for containers or rock gardens. This easy to care for plant is perfect for hot, dry locations. It has non-rigid spines along the edges of the leaves.
Angel Trumpets Full Sun pre-ferred, will tolerate part sun. Deer resistant. Water well when hot. Can be stored indoors during winter in colder areas, or seed pods collected for sowing next year.Datura grow 6-8’. Brugmansia grow 3-5’.
Batflowers These plants are natives to China. Flowers measure 12” across. Do well in outdoor containers, but can also be grown indoors. Perfect for your greenhouse or sun porch. They prefer shady, humid conditions and well-drained, moist, slightly acidic soil. Blooms August-September.
Chinese Lantern Also known as Winter Cherry. Popular for use in dried flower arrangements. Can be planted directly in the ground even in the most northern areas, or planted in containers where it can be brought indoors to be enjoyed during the winter. Prefers full sun to partial shade and well-drained soil.
Dwarf Musa Banana Keep very moist at all times, but do not allow to stand in water. Lots of humidity required; for best results use a humidifier. Very sensitive to cool temperatures; ideal temperature at night is 65-70º and 75-80º during the day. Should be fertilized all year, but more heavily during the summer. Do NOT prune. Bright Light to Full Sun.
Bird of Paradise Typically this plant will not flower until it is about 3 or 4 years old (we send 2 year old plants) and has 8 to 10 mature leaves. They bloom September to May. Fertilize once per month. Filtered or Indirect Light; Evenly Moist.
Blueberry, "Top Hat" Miniature bush plants grow only 2' tall and about 12" in diameter. Berries are medium large, bright blue, firm, with good flavor. Perfect for growing in a pot on the patio or indoors in a sunny window. Prefers acidic soil. Bright Light to Full Sun.
Bougainvillea Can bloom year round, continuously, in ideal conditions; expect slower growth during fall and early winter. Can be trained to any size and several shapes -- from small and bushy to a large, trellised display. A little pruning in the spring will promote new growth and flowering. Bright to Filtered Light. Constant moisture in the summer and somewhat dry in the winter.
Cactus - Christmas, Easter, Twilight Tangerine Holiday Cactus like a rich soil that is kept evenly moist. Fertilize every two weeks from spring through August. These cacti are photoperiodic: The day length determines when they will bloom. They need long nights and short days in order to blossom. Provide about 14 hours of continual darkness in every 24-hour period, starting eight weeks before you want them to bloom. The plant can be covered to provide the needed amount of darkness. Filtered or Indirect Light; Evenly Moist.
3-in-1 Citrus Consists of a Lemon, Orange, and Tangerine. All three are to be kept in one pot. The plant is a dwarf, but the fruits are full size. Keep moist. Bright Light to Full Sun.
Daisy Tree Enjoy it outdoors during the summer and then move it indoors for the winter. Requires partial to full sun but keep it away from areas that get too hot. Keep soil moist during the summer. Prune plants after flowering to keep uniform shape.
Fuchsia During blooming time (Late Winter through Summer) keep evenly moist and keep out of direct light; fertilize every 2 weeks. During the winter, allow the plant to rest in a cool room and quit fertilizing. During this time allow the soil to dry out before watering. Around late February, new shoots will appear, cut the stems back to encourage branching and begin to water evenly again.
Fragrant Trailing Gardenia Gardeniasprefer an acidic soil. Being winter bloomers they will only flower under cool conditions, so keep the day temperatures around 70-75 degrees, and the night temperatures 10 degrees less. Fertilize monthly from January to September. They do best in very humid conditions; mist daily.
Ghost Plant (succulent) In their natural habitat, succulents receive water infrequently. Plant should be watered thoroughly and then allowed to dry out, before watering again. During cooler months, watering should only be done to prevent the plant from shriveling. Once established, fertilize plants lightly in the spring. Bright Light to Full Sun.
Hawaiian Wedding Plant Keep evenly moist during its active growing cycle, sparingly during the rest period. Needs a constant room temperature and will bloom in 8 weeks. Bright indirect sunlight.
Indoor Juniper Prefers well-drained, acidic soil. To thrive this plant must go through a winter dormancy period. To do so, keep it in an enclosed breezeway that remains cool but above freezing. It should still receive sun during this dormant period. Bright Light to Full Sun.
Lemon, Dwarf Produces full size Lemons (usually only 1-2 at a time) within 12 months. Requires at least 4 hours of direct sunlight per day for best results. Likes moist, but not wet soil.
Lime, Dwarf Produces full size fruit within 12 months. Requires at least 4 hours of direct sunlight per day. Likes moist, but not wet soil.
Medusa Ornamental Pepper Plant should be kept evenly moist; not over watered or over dry (leaves will drop if too wet or too dry). Fertilize when plant is actively growing or flowering. Repot in winter or early spring as needed. Bright Light to Full Sun.
Miniature Roses Miniature roses do well near a window with bright light. Grow them in a cool room and fertilize every 3 to 4 weeks. Prune as one would a garden rose. Allow soil to slightly dry out between watering. Foliage loss is normal from October through December, as the plant is in its natural resting period. To encourage this resting period, begin to decrease watering after the plant has stopped flowering. During this time, do not fertilize and only give enough water to prevent the soil from drying out completely.
Mosquito Shoo Geranium Prefer bright sunlight and circulating air. Water heavily, and then allow to nearly dry out before watering again. This plant can be grown outdoors during frost-free seasons, or outdoors year round in frost-free climates. Repels mosquitoes for up to 10 feet.
Mystifying Prayer Plant Soil should be moist at all times except winter, when the soil should be allowed to dry out some. Fertilize every two months from spring to fall. Filtered or Indirect Light.
Orange, Dwarf Will produce fruit within 12 months; typically 4-6 fruit. Older plants will produce more fruit. Requires at least 4 hours of direct sunlight per day for best results. Likes moist, but not wet soil.
Passion Flower Keep potting mix moist, keep in a warm room, and fertilize every 2 weeks when actively growing. Requires moist air; a humidifier can be used for best results. During winter, keep at 50º and water sparingly. Bright Light to Full Sun.
Pineapple Tropical plant, easy to grow and drought tolerant. High sugar content and no acid. Partial sun preferred. Grows only 2 ½-5’ high. Can be grown in cold areas and brought indoors for the winter.
Pomegranate, Purple Sunset Bears highly nutritious fruit in addition to being a wonderfully ornamental plant. Blooms appear from June through September even on new wood and produce a constant array of purple-black fruits. Tolerates heat, drought and variety of soils. Prefers full sun.
Powder Puff Tree Use regular potting soil. Needs 4+ hours of direct sunlight from southern window. Flowers in winter. Let plant approach dryness before watering, then water thoroughly and discard drainage. Fertilize only during late spring and summer. Requires moist air. Can be kept to desired height and shape with light pruning.
Queens Tears Billbergia zebrine Prefers sun to part shade and ordinary soil; water when dry, but still requires good quick drainage. Daily misting of plant is favorable.
Rabbit's Foot Fern Also called the "Good Luck" plant because of its charming silvery-brown, fur-like rhizomes. This is the most delicate and finely cut of the Davallias. Grows 12-18" tall. Inside use direct light or put under lights, outdoors use indirect, filtered light, or partial shade. Never let ferns dry out completely. Require high humidity, provide daily misting and stand their pots on pebbles in water filled trays. DO NOT bury the rhizomes in soil; drape over side of pot.
Regalia Geranium Unlike most other Geraniums, this variety does not like full sun. Prefers cooler temperatures, so guard against mid-day sun and heat. Water heavily, and then allow to nearly dry out before watering again. Fertilize twice monthly while blooming.
Shamrock Prefers well drained, moist, organic acid to neutral soil. Plant in full sun to part shade. Grows 3-6" tall. Plant bulbs 1" deep and 3-6" apart. Hardy in 7-10 if planted outdoors. Great as a container/houseplant.
Shrimp Plant Plant does not require much water; prefers to completely dry out between watering. Can be fertilized once a month and should be pruned frequently to keep a compact shape. Should almost always be in bloom. Bright light to full sun.
Starfish Flowers Look exotic but are easy to grow. Hugh, star-shaped flowers reminds you of a cactus although it has no thorns.
String of Pearls Use regular potting soil and bright, indirect light if indoors. Fertilize lightly with a low-nitrogen fertilizer in spring and summer, fertilize more lightly through fall and winter.
Sweet Leaf Plant Stevia rebaudiana Full sun to light shade in almost any soil; needs good drainage. Leaves can be eaten fresh or dried. Sold in health stores as a sugar alternative.
Tangerine, Dwarf Will produce fruit within 12 months; ripens in winter. Requires at least 4 hours of direct sunlight per day for best results. Likes moist, but not wet, soil.
Voodoo Bulbs Arum cornutum Bright indirect light to shade is best with rich soil. Keep soil moist but not wet. Bring indoors in winter in north, hardy in zones 6-10.
There are some items that we send out in pots including house plants and tender perennials. Plants that arrive in pots are NOT dormant. Due to the tenderness of these plants we do not begin shipping them until April because of the cold temperatures they may encounter during transit.
When potted items arrive at your home, they may look wilted or have lost leaves; this is okay! Immediately remove them from the packaging and plant as soon as possible.
If the plants arrive too early and it is too cold to plant them, they can be placed inside in a sunny window and watered. Do not allow them to dry out. Once there is no longer a chance of frost, you may plant them outside.
Bulbs that you plant in the fall spend the winter creating a strong root system and come up in early spring. Amend soil with organic material and plant bulbs according to the chart below in loose soil. To eliminate air spaces make sure and firm soil as you plant. Mulch in colder climates. Measurements in the chart are from the soil surface to the bulb top.
Summer flowering bulbs like the warm weather. Set out after the danger of frost is past and soil has warmed. To get an early start, you may plant Cannas, Tuberous Begonias and Dahlias in flats indoors. Plant Glads at 10 day intervals throughout growing season and allow 70 to 90 days to mature. Mix peat moss or compost with your soil to improve drainage and keep bulbs from rotting. Adding bone meal will help boost root development. Fertilize with a balanced fertilizer at the rate of 1 lb. per 100 square feet monthly after planting and until foliage yellows. This will help replenish nutrients in the bulb for next year's flowers. With the exception of lilies, spring planted bulbs are tender and must be dug and stored in cold climates. After the first frost, dig, clean, dry and store for the winter in damp peat moss and sand or vermiculite. Store them at 50º and DO NOT ALLOW TO FREEZE.
|BULBS AND TUBERS|
|Arum, Dragon||Pt Shade|
|Calla Lily||Pt Shade|
|Crown Imperial||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Cyclamen, Hardy||Light Shade|
|Daffodil, Mini||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Elephant Ears||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Freesias||Sun to Lt Shade|
|Liatris, Blazing Stars||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Lily, Trumpet||Sun/Pt Shade|
|Mexican Shell Flower||Sun|
|Narcissus, Large||Sun/Pt Shade|
A perennial is a plant that will come back year after year if undamaged. Most of the perennials we ship arrive bare root. Some are shipped in small pots (see potted items for more information). Perennials typically will not flower the first year as they are establishing their root systems and foliage to support blooms the next season.
The following chart gives tips as to light, spacing, planting methods and other hints. In general, perennials require deep, well-drained garden soil that retains moisture. The planting holes should be wide and deep enough for the roots to have room to be spread out. After setting, the plants should be thoroughly watered and lightly mulched. Mulch heavily in the fall to prevent frost damage to fall-planted perennials. Fertilize regularly throughout the growing season. Begin cultivation early and continue all season. Remove faded blooms to prolong flowering.
When plants make a rapid growth they should be divided every few years to rejuvenate the plant. If they are not, the clumps become too large and the inside roots will be starved and crowded. This can cause the blooms to be small. Divide perennials in either fall or spring.
Ground covers are a unique variety of low-growing perennial. Often used in areas difficult to mow or cover with grass, ground covers require special planting. Plant ground covers such as Crownvetch with the crown 2-3' apart with roots pointing straight down and tops above the soil. If the tops of the plants are indistinguishable, plant crowns on the side and cover with 1-2" of soil. Water well until established and mulch to retain moisture and reduce weeds. Don't be surprised if the plants don't fill in the first year. They need to become established and develop strong root systems before forming a solid mat of ferny growth the second year.
1. Plants such as Iris should be planted with the roots below the surface of the ground and the rhizome just on the surface.
2. Plants such as Peonies should be planted with the tips of the buds just below the surface of the ground (about 1").
3. Plants with a distinct crown should be set with the crown even with the soil surface.
4. Plants with a fleshy root such as Hollyhocks, should be planted with the tap root straight down and the bud just below the surface of the dirt about 1". If you can't determine which end is up, lay the root on its side.
5. Planting depth for bulbs should be 3 times their width.
2 cm wide = 6 cm deep
|Full Sun||Ground Cover|
|Part Sun to Part Shade||Deer Resistant|
|Drought Tolerant||Good Cut Flowers|
|Can Be Planted in Water Garden||Attracts Hummingbirds|
|Astrantia, Moulin Rouge|
|Aurinia, Mountain Gold|
|Black Eyed Susan|
|Bleeding Heart, Fernleaf|
|Campion, Orange Gnome|
|Cardinal Flower, Red|
|Daisy, Alaska Shasta|
|Delphinium, Blue Butterfly|
|Fuchsia, Hardy||up to 6'|
|Gaillardia, Arizona Sun|
|Gardenia, Kleims Hardy|
|Grass, Black Mondo|
|Grass, Blue Oat|
|Grass, Pampas White/Pink||3-8' Grass
|Grass, Rose/Silver Fountain|
|Hen & Chicken|
|Hollyhock, Mini Pink|
|Jack in the Pulpit|
|Juncus, Big Twister|
|Juniper, Blue Rug|
|Lily of the Valley|
|Monks Cap, Purple|
|Poker, Dwarf Red Hot|
|Potentilla, Fire Flames|
|Pulmonaria, Raspberry Splash|
|Rudbeckia, Cherry Brandy|
|Rudbeckia, Denver Daisy|
|Snow in the Summer|
|Walk on Me Plant|
|Yucca, Adam's Needle|
Daylilies are fibrous-rooted, hardy, herbaceous perennials. Their roots look like fingers, varying in size from tiny and threadlike to large, rounded and fleshy. There is a crown at the junction where the leaves and roots join. The leaves grow in the shape of a fan. Plant in full sun. Can tolerate some shade, but need at least 6 hours of sunlight per day. Soak 4-6 hours before planting. Work soil into a loose condition about 1’ deep. Mix well-rotted manure or compost, good garden soil, and peat moss. Make a mound in the center of the hole and set your daylily with the roots spread on each side of the mound. You should NOT plant the crown more than 1” below the surface of the soil. Firmly work the soil around and between the roots and water well. Make sure there are no air pockets. Plant 18-24” apart. Water well during heat and don’t cut back foliage until beginning of spring after danger of frost.
Are extremely adaptable and very resistant to diseases and insects. Use Hostas as a groundcover or border in partial to full shade. Can be planted in any good garden soil, but will perform at its best in a rich moist loam. Foliage and flower spikes are excellent for bouquets. Protect from deer, slugs and snails. Hostas are fragrant, attract hummingbirds, and are drought tolerant. Grow 1 ½-3' tall
Plant in full or partial sun in well drained soil. Work well-rotted manure or compost 1' deep. Apply bonemeal or lime into the top of the soil along with high phosphorus-type fertilizer. Plant rhizomes flat with the roots spreading out and slightly downward just below the ground level. Cover the rhizome base halfway up leaving the top part of the rhizome exposed to the sun. Water irises gently, but well. Space 6-8" apart, pointing the growing tips away from other if clump effect desired. Add 2-3" mulch layer in fall. Remove mulch in spring and fertilize with balance fertilizer. Fertilize in August with high phosphorus fertilizer. After flowering, remove flower stems. After the first frost, cut the foliage off leaving 4-6". Divide and replant iris every 3-5 years to prevent overcrowding.
Poppies grow from a stout tap root that allows them to store water for dry periods. Plant in sunny location in well-drained soil. In the south, they will grow and bloom in part shade. Work well-rotted manure or aged compost into the poppy bed. Apply bonemeal or lime in the top of the soil along with a high phosphorous-type fertilizer. Dig a hole deep enough to accommodate the poppy's taproot, keeping the crown 1-2" below the soil surface. Fill the hole with soil and tap firmly to get out air pockets. Water gently, but thoroughly. Mulch the first winter to prevent soil from heaving. Height: 2-3', Spread: 2', Space: 15-20" apart. Make excellent bouquets if you sear the bottom 2-3" of the stem.
Roses should be planted immediately upon arrival in a sunny, well-drained spot. If this is not possible, they should be heeled in until they can be planted. The roots should stay covered until they are ready to be placed in the soil and soaked in water for several hours before planting. Broken, dried or decayed roots should be trimmed off prior to planting. The hole should be large enough so the roots are not crowded; depending on the size of the root system, 15" wide and 12" deep is about average. Do not place the plant so deep that any branches are covered. The roots should be spread out around the hole and the soil sifted around them. Water should be added to help settle the soil as it is being filled in. Once completely covered, more water should be added. Mound up the soil around the plant 5-6" to prevent tops from drying out. Prune tops.
Hybrid Tea Roses should be planted 18-21" apart; Hybrid Shrub, Hedge Roses and Rose Trees 21-24" apart; and Climbers 6-8' apart.
Fertilize after pruning in early spring (just before the new growth begins) and just before plants bloom. Additional feedings should be given throughout the season according to product directions. Roses should not be fed after August in cold climates. In future years, prune 1/3 to ½ of previous year's growth, remove all suckers as they appear and damaged branches. Remove faded blooms to promote additional flowering.
Artichokes are tolerant of many soil types as long as nitrogen levels are average, range from mostly sand to mostly clay and from dry to moist with pH 4.5 to 8.5.
Plant in Spring or Fall. Dig trenches 8" deep and line with 1" compost or rotted manure. Plant roots 5-6" deep, 18" apart and in rows 3-4' apart, 4-6 weeks before the last frost date. Mulch or mound soil when plants reach 6" to provide support. When 8" cut away all but 6 suckers and plant to make new row at least 4' apart. You may prefer to stake plants. In late summer, cut stalks back to 5', removing any flowers. Once leaves start to yellow and shrivel, cut back close to the ground. Tubers are ready for digging after the tops are killed by frost. Dig like potatoes or leave in the ground and harvest throughout the winter. Freezing won't hurt the tubers, and a heavy straw mulch will make digging easier. Tubers will last up to 20 weeks in the ground.
Soil should be well-drained and asparagus can tolerate poor, salty, or alkaline soil. In bottom of trenches mound 6" of loose, humus-rich soil that is well composed and thoroughly wet followed by 6" of rich topsoil.
SEED: Soak 24 hours in lukewarm water before planting. Sow 1-2" deep, in rows 16" apart, as early in spring as possible. Thin plants to 2" and give frequent cultivation. Transplant to permanent bed the following spring, 18" apart in rows 4' apart. Roots should be well spread apart and crown of plant covered with 4" of earth.
ROOTS: Plant in spring or fall. Create an 18" trench filled with the soil described above. Spread roots over this mounded soil and cover the crown of the roots with 2" of soil. Make sure the roots are placed 4" below the ground surface to allow room for them to grow and have more soil added. Rake more soil in after new shoots are a few inches high. In planting in the fall, fill the trench in completely to protect for winter. Fertilize with 3-5 lbs. per 100 square feet of fertilizer or manure each spring. Apply and work into soil before growth starts. Repeat again after harvest is complete for the year. Cut the tops back and mulch in late fall to help prevent deep freezing and soil temperature changes. Don't cut stalks until the third year and then only lightly. When the bed is mature, (after third year), cut all stalks regularly for 6-8 weeks only, or until around the end of June in the North. Then stop cutting completely to allow bed to develop for next year. When harvesting, snap off or cut shoots at ground level to avoid injuring new growth.
Plant cloves 12” apart and cover with 2" of soil. If planted in the fall, cloves will produce huge bulbs (4-5") which can be divided into individual large cloves the following fall. Protect in winter in cold areas with mulch. If planted in the spring, it will usually take 2 growing seasons to produce the huge bulbs. However, warm climates may produce the large bulbs the first year.
At planting time use a low-nitrogen (5-10-10) fertilizer and again when the tops are 6" high; too much nitrogen causes foliage growth but few and smaller new bulbs. Separate cloves and plant them 4-6" apart, 2-3" deep and in rows 1½' apart. If you are leaving the garlic in for a second year to develop the large size cloves, plant 6-8" apart and 4-6" deep. In the coldest climates, plant in the spring; in all other areas, plant in the fall. Plant in rich, loose, sandy and well-drained soil. Garlic will not do well in boggy and overly clayey ground.
When the tops turn yellow and fall over, 90 or more days after the cloves are planted, dig the bulbs from the ground carefully, allow them to dry in the sun for a few days, then braid the tops into strings or tie in bunches and hang in a cool, dry place. In the spring, water and fertilize well, but decrease watering as harvesting time nears, to cut down on mold growth. Cut off woody seed stems at the top leaf to redirect energy to the bulb.
Horseradish is usually grown from piece roots. They can be planted horizontally and covered with 2" of soil. Space 8-9" between roots and 15" between rows. Prepare soil with humus and fertilizer, as horseradish prefers rich loam with organic matter. Harvest in late fall during the 2nd year after planting.
Plant sets as soon as the ground can be worked in early spring. Soil should be fertile, deep and well-drained. Onions are heavy feeders so prepare soil by working well rotted manure and fertilizer into the soil before planting. One pound manure per square foot and 4-5 lbs. of 5-10-10 fertilizer per 100 square feet. A steady moisture supply is essential, particularly during bulb formation. Start seed 12 weeks before outdoor planting date, ½" deep. When setting out transplants or sets, space 2-3" apart in rows 1-2' apart, 1-2" deep. Fertilize again midseason. Onions are frost hardy and can be planted 4 weeks prior to your last average frost date. Southerners can plant onions in the fall or winter. When sowing seeds directly into the garden, do so as early as possible, as soon as the ground can be worked.
Harvest when half of the tops have broken over naturally. When the tops have fully wilted, cut them off 1 ½" above the bulb. Leave onions in the garden to cure for a few days until roots are brittle. Prepare for storage by drying in an open crate or mesh bag for 2 weeks or more. Clean by removing dirt and loose, dry outer skins. Store where the air is dry and between 35-50ºF. Onions with thick necks should be used first as they are more likely to spoil.
Potatoes grow best in rich, loose, sandy, fast draining, slightly acidic soil. Prepare with plenty of organic matter and add 5-10-10 low nitrogen fertilizer; pH range of 4.8 to 5.4. They can be grown in higher pH but then there is the chance for scab (brown corky tissue on the potato surface); add lime only if pH is below 4.8. If soil is heavy or waterlogged, potatoes may become deformed or rot. Plant where potatoes haven't been planted for a few years. Plant sets 4-5" deep and 12-15" apart in rows 2' apart. Do not cultivate too deeply as tubers form close to the surface but do keep weeded. It may be necessary to mound 2-3" of soil, mulch or straw over the row as they grow to keep the sun from turning the growing tubers green. Dig when tubers are large enough, usually 7-8 weeks after planting. Remove larger tubers but not the entire plant allowing the smaller tubers to continue growing. When plant tops begin to dry out, harvest for winter storage. Leave tubers in the garden for a day to cure the skins and then store in a cool, dark, airy place.
Space 3-5" apart in the row in furrows 1 - 1 1/2" deep. If used as dry bulbs, the shallots should be lifted when the leaves have turned brown and left out on the ground for a few days to dry. Remove dead leaves and soil before storing in a cool, dry place. Small bulblets can be stored and used for planting stock the following spring. Bulbs may be used for pickling.
Vines should be planted a minimum of 1 foot from any structure for adequate air circulation. Cut back and stake securely. Firm soil around roots and fertilize after new growth begins. Vines need plenty of water and well-drained soil.
BITTERSWEET - Does well in any soil and may be best to place in poor soil so it does not over-grow, as it can be invasive. Dry to moist water requirements and part shade to full sun. Plant not more than 20' apart, but two planted in same hole will cross-pollinate and bear a greater abundance of berries. Vigorous, twining, fast growing. Berries used for dried flower arrangements; useful for covering a waste space, rubble, or fence.
CLEMATIS - Plant Clematis 3-4' apart in light loamy, well-drained soil in full sun. Add peat moss for best results. Give vines lots of sunlight, shade roots with small plantings and/or mulch. Clematis vines must have their roots cool. Keep soil moist but not wet. Pruning depends on when the plant flowers. Early flowering types bloom on last years wood so prune AFTER spring flowering and only to remove dead or diseased parts and to control shape, (Nellie Moser, Will Goodwin, our varieties of Orchid/Red, Pink, White and Blue Light). Later flowering varieties flower on current years growth and benefit from severe pruning (down to 12-18" from ground) in the winter or spring before new growth begins, (Ernest Markham, Jackmanii, our varieties of Purple and Red).
DEWBERRY - Plant in light, fertile, well drained, moisture holding soil, with peat moss added in full sun. This thorn-less, deciduous perennial fruiting vine, known also as a trailing blackberry, is tender and grown mainly in the South. Plant 4' apart in rows 6' apart, one month before last frost. When planting, clip canes to 6" stubs and place at the depth they grew in the nursery. DO NOT plant them where tomatoes, potatoes, or eggplants have grown previously. As soon as new growth begins, cut any stubs that do not sprout and burn them to protect plants from anthracnose. Mulch to keep in moisture and reduce weeds. If using straw or sawdust, add extra nitrogen. Otherwise don't fertilize too heavily or you will have lush plant growth at the expense of fruit.
HONEYSUCKLE, HALL'S - Tolerates any soil type and part shade but prefers full sun. Sturdy support is required. Plant 3' apart. So fragrant it will attract many bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. Prune in spring to remove dead or broken vines.
HOP'S VINE - Plant root cuttings on their side in a 6-inch trench, covering them with 2 inches of soil, in full sun. Gradually fill in the trench as the vine grows. Must keep well watered. Can grow to 25' in one season. May be trained to any support; hardy variety to zone 3; grown as an ornamental in the south; does not produce hops in zones 8-10.
HUMMINGBIRD - TRUMPET VINE - Best in full sun but will tolerate part shade in any well-drained, even poor soil. Place 6-8" deep, as close as 2-3' apart. Needs sturdy support. Can grow to 20' or more. Blooms from July to November with trumpet shaped flowers, 2-3" long, in clusters of 4 to 12. Vigorous grower, attract hummingbirds. Cut back in the fall to 2 ft to keep it from over growth and to promote flowering; effective fast cover; use super phosphate to promote blooming. Tolerant of deer, drought, heat, humidity, rabbits and wind. Deciduous.
HYDRANGEA, CLIMBING - Plant in rich, well drained, normal to moist soil. Tolerates some sun but thrives in dense shade in summer. May grow to 60-80'. Recommended for northwest walls or places where shade is dense. Fragrant. Deciduous.
IVY, SUB-ZERO - Tolerates smoky conditions; will not hurt masonry. Also known as English Ivy. Spreading. Should never be allowed to grow up the trunks of trees or to climb on wood. Can choke out trees and shrubs. Can be used as ground cover or climbing vine.
PYRACANTHA – Also known as Firethorn. Plant in full to partial sun. Vine retains its foliage all winter. Drought tolerant. Deer resistant. Good for cut flowers.
SHELL PLANT - Very fragrant, fast grower when established. Prefers moist, well drained soil and full to partial sun. Will reach 3' if planted in container. Will reach 25' in height with a 4-5' spread if planted in the ground. Hardy in zones 9-10 only.
SILVER LACE VINE - Tolerates most well drained garden soils with full sun to part shade. This twining vine needs good support and can reach 10-15'. Small, fragrant flowers bloom in late summer and are borne abundantly on slender panicles. Plant 3-5' apart in zones 4-10. Valued as a quick cover, particularly where other vines won't grow. Prune in spring. Deciduous.
VIRGINIA CREEPER - Tolerates almost any soil type in full sun to heavy shade. May grow 10' in a single year; indeterminate height and spread. No flower bloom but leaves are a glossy green in summer and turn brilliant scarlet in fall. Strong vine which quickly covers walls, fences, and trellises.
WISTERIA - Rich loam, organic, slightly acidic soil is best in full sun. Blooms 2-4 years after planting in May-June, in clusters 6-12" long. Very fragrant. Needs sturdy support; trellis, wall, fence, etc. Prune aggressive growth during summer. Regular spring pruning promotes flower formation. Resistant to deer, drought, heat, humidity, pollution, rabbits, seashore, slope and wind. All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the seeds, keep animals and children from ingesting any plant material. Deciduous.